Anopheles spp

From Dog
Anopheles punctipennis unfed female[1]

Anopheles spp are a genus of mosquitoes found worldwide and responsible for disease transmission in dogs.

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Anopheles punctipennis
  • Anopheles crucians
  • Anopheles sinensis
  • Anopheles lesteri
  • Anopheles minimus
  • Anopheles dirus
  • Anopheles claviger
  • Anopheles hyrcanus
  • Anopheles maculipennis
  • Anopheles pseudopictus
  • Anopheles sacharovi
  • Anopheles superpictus

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on water or in dry places that tend to flood seasonally. The larvae molt four times within the first two weeks of hatching and then pupate. Within 24 hours after emergence from the pupa, female mosquitoes begin seeking blood, feeding every day or every second day on a host until sufficient protein stores allow them to begin laying eggs. It is the repeated feeding which makes them vectors for so many diseases and a cause of blood loss when feeding in swarms[2].

Diseases which can be transmitted by these mosquitoes to dogs include:

Preventative control of mosquito populations is the most effective method of disease control.

Drugs such as fipronil[4] and permethrin[5] are effective in long-term management strategies.

References

  1. Iowa State Uni
  2. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:7
  3. Licitra B et al (2010) Detection of Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) by polymerase chain reaction in Aedes albopictus, Anopheles punctipennis, and Anopheles crucians (Diptera: Culicidae) from Georgia, USA. J Med Entomol 47(4):634-638
  4. Bouhsira E et al (2009) Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Vet Rec 165(5):135-137
  5. Machida H et al (2008) The inhibitory effect of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin on blood feeding by mosquitoes in dogs raised under outdoor conditions. Vet Parasitol 154(3-4):318-324