Aujeszky disease virus

From Dog

Aujesky disease virus (ADV; Suid herpesvirus type 1) is a varicellovirus (Herpresviridae) classically associated with pseudorabies in pigs.

Pigs and wild boars are the natural host for ADV and the only animals to become latent carriers. Although the virus can infect nearly all domesticated and wild mammals including cattle, sheep, goats, cats, and dogs, these species are considered as dead-end hosts. ADV does not infect humans[1].

This virus rarely causes disease in dogs but has been associated with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis[2], primarily in dogs on farms during outbreaks[3], or in boar-hunting dogs that eat infected pig meat.

Affected dogs present with clinical signs associated with multifocal nonsuppurative brain stem encephalitis[4].

Dyspnea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia and muscle stiffness are common presenting signs[5].

The 'mad itch' observed in pigs has not been reported, but atypical signs have been observed in dogs such as ptyalism, ptosis of one eye, drooping ear and the head bent to one side[6].

Diagnosis is based on PCR viral isolation, postmortem findings and immunohistochemistry on biopsy samples[7].

There is no known treatment apart from routine palliative care, and most affected dogs succumb to the disease.

References

  1. Promedmail
  2. Matsuoka T et al (1988) Aujeszky's disease in a dog. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 50(1):277-278
  3. Salwa A (2004) A natural outbreak of Aujeszky's disease in farm animals. Pol J Vet Sci 7(4):261-266
  4. Schöniger S et al (2012) Nonsuppurative encephalitis in a dog. Vet Pathol 49(4):731-734
  5. Cramer SD et al (2011) Pseudorabies virus infection in Oklahoma hunting dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 23(5):915-923
  6. Richter JH et al (1975) An atypical case of Aujeszky's disease in a dog. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 100(6):330-334
  7. Quiroga MI et al (1998) Diagnosis of Aujeszky's disease virus infection in dogs by use of immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 45(2):75-81