Basidiobolus spp

From Dog
Basidiobolus ranarum under light microscopy[1]

Basidiobolus spp are a microscopic spore-producing fungus which inhabits decaying leaf litter and the feces of frogs and small reptiles[2].

Dogs are thought to become infected from ingesting or inhaling spores while foraging, through skin wounds or when eating small amphibians and reptiles.

Basidiobolus are an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections characterized by granulomatous lesions in the subcutaneous tissues as well as in the intestinal wall and respiratory tract.

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Basidiobolus ranarum[3]

In dogs, chronic diarrhea is usually reported as a symptom of infection, although lymphadenopathy and pneumonia have been reported[4].

Similar symptoms and histology are observed with Pythium spp, Lagenidium spp and Cokeromyces spp, making them difficult to distinguish from one another[5].

Diagnosis can be ascertained by microscopic identification of the fungus or by PCR assay speciation[6].

Treatment has been effective with long-term azole therapy, specifically itraconazole.

References

  1. Mycology Online
  2. Miller RI (1985) Gastrointestinal phycomycosis in 63 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186(5):473-478
  3. Greene CE et al (2002) Infection with Basidiobolus ranarum in two dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221(4):528-532
  4. Hawkins EC et al (2006) Treatment of Conidiobolus sp. pneumonia with itraconazole in a dog receiving immunosuppressive therapy. J Vet Intern Med 20(6):1479-1482
  5. Grooters AM et al (2003) Pythiosis, lagenidiosis, and zygomycosis in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 33(4):695-720
  6. Gómez-Muñoz MT et al (2012) Development of a specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Basidiobolus. Mycologia 104(2):585-591