Unlike humans, primary pulmonary carcinomas are quite rare in dogs.
Primary bronchial carcinoma often metastasize to the pulmonary parenchyma and surrounding pleural tissues. Secondary pulmonary edema and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy may be observed in advanced cases.
Primary bronchial tumors are mostly carcinomas with a predominance for adenocarcinoma. They are usually classified as bronchial, bronchioalveolar, or alveolar carcinoma. Bronchioalveolar tumors are frequently multicentric but can present as diffuse bronchioalveolar carcinomas.
Types of bronchial carcinoma in dogs include:
- Papillary adenocarcinoma (non-small cell carcinoma)
- Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma 
- Adenosquamous carcinoma (small cell carcinoma)
- Bronchial squamous cell carcinoma (non-small cell carcinoma)
- Bronchial gland carcinoma
- Neuroendocrine carcinoma
Affected dogs usually present with coughing, dyspnea, epistaxis, fever, weight loss and anorexia.
Diagnosis is based on imaging with radiography, CT or MRI. Tracheobronchial washes or tracheal endoscopy are frequently employed as well.
Regional mediastinal lymphadenopathy is suggestive of a poorer prognosis.
Treatment usually requires lobectomy via thoracotomy or endoscopy in cases where the trachea is unaffected by metastases, and is usually curative. Adjunct radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be required.
Immunotoxin therapy has shown some promise in experimental models, although antibodies against immunotherapy eventually renders this method impractical.
- Microscopy U
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- Henry CJ et al (2005) Clinical evaluation of BR96 sFv-PE40 immunotoxin therapy in canine models of spontaneously occurring invasive carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 11(2):751-755