These bacteria are enterobacteria commonly isolated from soil, water, sewage, and food and are considered to be an opportunistic or secondary pathogen of the skin, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. In dogs, they are part of the normal biotome of the oropharynx and gastrointestinal flora.
Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:
- Citrobacter freundii
- Citrobacter diversus
- Citrobacter koserii
In dogs, Citrobacter spp are commonly involved in recurrent cystitis, with reports of emphysematous cystitis occurring rarely. Localized infections associated with indwelling intravenous catheters are common, and secondary infections with respiratory ailments are noted.
However, septicemia is not uncommon, with a number of puppies and immunocompromised adult dogs reportedly suffering acute hemorrhagic diarrhea, followed by septicemia, peritonitis, myocarditis and fibrinous pericarditis.
Antimicrobial therapy is advised, using drugs such as amoxycillin/clavulanate or cephalosporins such as cefovecin, based on culture and sensitivity studies. Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported.
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