Clomipramine

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Clomicalm.jpg

Clomipramine (Clomicalm) is used in dogs to treat certain behavior problems.

When used in conjunction with behavioral and environmental management, this drug has been shown to be effective at management of inappropriate elimination, separation anxiety[1], transportation anxiety[2], storm phobia[3] and tail chasing[4].

Clomipramine is a tricyclic agent with both antidepressant and antiobsessional properties. Like other tricyclics, clomipramine inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin uptake into central nerve terminals, possibly by blocking the membrane-pump of neurons, thereby increasing the concentration of transmitter monoamines at receptor sites. Clomipramine is presumed to influence depression and obsessive and compulsive behaviour through its effects on serotonergic neurotransmission. The actual neurochemical mechanism is unknown, but clomipramine's capacity to inhibit serotonin reuptake is thought to be important. Clomipramine appears to have a mild sedative effect which may be helpful in alleviating the anxiety component often accompanying depression.

As with other tricyclic compounds, clomipramine possesses anticholinergic properties which are responsible for some of its side effects. It also has weak antihistamine and antiserotonin properties, lowers the convulsive threshold, potentiates the effect of norepinephrine and other drugs acting on the CNS, has a quinidine-like effect on the heart and may impair cardiac conduction[5].

Recommended doses are 1 - 2 mg/kg once daily. Temporary ataxia and mania may be experienced during the first 24 - 36 hours.

Acute pancreatitis[6] and subclinical hypothyroidism[7] have been reported as a side-effect with this drug.

References

  1. Ghaffari MS et al (2007) Penile self-mutilation as an unusual sign of a separation-related problem in a crossbreed dog. J Small Anim Pract 48(11):651-653
  2. Frank D et al (2006) Placebo-controlled double-blind clomipramine trial for the treatment of anxiety or fear in beagles during ground transport. Can Vet J 47(11):1102-1108
  3. Crowell-Davis SL et al (2003) Use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 222(6):744-748
  4. Yalcin E (2010) Comparison of clomipramine and fluoxetine treatment of dogs with tail chasing. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 38(5):295-299
  5. Bert B et al (2006) Clomipramine and selegiline: do they influence impulse control? J Vet Pharmacol Ther 29(1):41-47
  6. Kook PH et al (2009) Pancreatitis associated with clomipramine administration in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 50(2):95-98
  7. Gulikers KP & Panciera DL (2003) Evaluation of the effects of clomipramine on canine thyroid function tests. J Vet Intern Med 17(1):44-49