Clostridium spp

From Dog
Clostridium difficile under electron microscopy[1]

Clostridium spp are a commensal anaerobic Gram-positive zoonotic bacteria normally present as part of the oropharynx[2] and gastrointestinal microbiome but can causes enteritis and tetanus in dogs worldwide[3].

All species form endospores and have a strictly fermentative type of metabolism. Most clostridia will not grow under aerobic conditions and vegetative cells are killed by exposure to O2, but their spores are able to survive long periods of exposure to air[4]. The numbers of Clostridium spp present in the canine microbiome is unaffected by prebiotic supplementation[5][6].

Species of Clostridia which are reported in dogs include:

Clostridia are able to ferment a wide variety of organic compounds, producing foul smelling compounds, characteristic of the disease.

During bacterial floral changes, some Clostridia can ascend the bile duct due to some predisposing pathology, such as inflammatory bowel disease, cholestasis, gallbladder stones, chronic pancreatitis, immunosuppression, or altered gut motility[23].

Clostridium spp bacteria are also capable of causing systemic illness such as hepatitis[24].

Diagnosis can be performed by routine laboratory culture, fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), ELISA or definitively with PCR assays[25].

Most Clostridium spp are sensitive to broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as amoxycillin/clavulanate[26], ampicillin, erythromycin, metronidazole, and tylosin[27].

Resistant strains such as C. difficile require vancomycin[28].

Disinfection of kennels is important for limiting spread to other dogs. C. difficile and C. perfringens are alcohol-resistant, but susceptible to bleach[29].

References

  1. Microbe Wiki
  2. Ferreira FB et al (2006) Root canal microbiota of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions induced by two different methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102(4):564-570
  3. Hooda S et al (2012) Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome. Anim Health Res Rev 13(1):78-88
  4. Textbook of Bacteriology
  5. Patra AK (2011) Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis. Animal 5(11):1743-1750
  6. Beloshapka AN et al (2012) Effects of feeding polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbiota and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs. Br J Nutr 108(4):638-644
  7. Chouicha N & Marks SL (2006) Evaluation of five enzyme immunoassays compared with the cytotoxicity assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 18(2):182-188
  8. Lefebvre SL et al(2009) Incidence of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and other health-care-associated pathogens by dogs that participate in animal-assisted interventions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234(11):1404-1417
  9. Lefebvre SL et al(2006) Epidemic Clostridium difficile strain in hospital visitation dog. Emerg Infect Dis 12(6):1036-1037
  10. Goldhammer MA et al (2008) Coxofemoral luxation in a border collie as a complication of a Clostridium tetani infection. J Small Anim Pract 49(3):159-162
  11. Sasaki J et al (1999) Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 61(2):175-177
  12. Tupler T et al (2012) Enteropathogens identified in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea. J Am Vet Med Assoc 241(3):338-343
  13. Hernandez JL et al (2003) Emphysematous pyometra in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44(2):196-198
  14. Griffin GM & Holt DE (2001) Dog-bite wounds: bacteriology and treatment outcome in 37 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 37(5):453-460
  15. Cattin I et al (2008) Subcutaneous abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens and osteomyelitis in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 49(4):200-203
  16. Headley SA et al (2009) Diagnostic exercise: Tyzzer's disease, distemper, and coccidiosis in a pup. Vet Pathol 46(1):151-254
  17. Bruchim Y et al (2006) Toxicological, bacteriological and serological diagnosis of botulism in a dog. Vet Rec 158(22):768-769
  18. Uriarte A et al (2010) Botulism in 2 urban dogs. Can Vet J 51(10):1139-1142
  19. Ribeiro MG et al (2012) Myonecrosis by Clostridium septicum in a dog, diagnosed by a new multiplex-PCR. Anaerobe Sep 10
  20. Greetham HL et al (2004) Allobaculum stercoricanis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from canine feces. Anaerobe 10(5):301-307
  21. Mentula S et al(2005) Comparison between cultured small-intestinal and fecal microbiotas in beagle dogs. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(8):4169-4175
  22. Greetham HL et al (2003) Clostridium colicanis sp. nov., from canine faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53(1):259-262
  23. Kearns S (2009) Infectious hepatopathies in dogs and cats. Top Companion Anim Med 24:189–198
  24. Ramery E et al (2012) Bacterial cholangiohepatitis in a dog. Can Vet J 53(4):423-425
  25. Albini S et al (2008) Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Vet Microbiol 127(1-2):179-185
  26. Gobeli S et al (2012) Antimicrobial susceptibility of canine Clostridium perfringens strains from Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 154(6):247-250
  27. Marks SL & Kather EJ (2003) Antimicrobial susceptibilities of canine Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens isolates to commonly utilized antimicrobial drugs. Vet Microbiol 94(1):39-45
  28. Weiss K et al (2012) Safety analysis of fidaxomicin in comparison with oral vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infections. Clin Infect Dis 55(2):S110-S115
  29. Marks SL et al (2011) Enteropathogenic bacteria in dogs and cats: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and control. J Vet Intern Med 25(6):1195-1208