Coquillettidia spp

From Dog
A female unfed Coquillettidia[1]

Coquillettidia spp are a genus of mosquitoes which feed habitually on dogs worldwide[2].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Coquillettidia richiardii[3]
  • Coquillettidia shannoni[4]
  • Coquillettidia perturbans[5]

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on water or in dry places that tend to flood seasonally. The larvae molt four times within the first two weeks of hatching and then pupate. Within 24 hours after emergence from the pupa, female mosquitoes begin seeking blood, feeding every day or every second day on a host until sufficient protein stores allow them to begin laying eggs. It is the repeated feeding which makes them vectors for so many diseases and a cause of blood loss when feeding in swarms[6].

These mosquitoes are responsible for a number of parasitic and viral diseases in dogs including:

Preventative control of mosquito populations is the most effective method of disease control.

Drugs such as fipronil[8] and permethrin[9] are effective in long-term management strategies.

References

  1. Iowa State
  2. Johansen CA et al (2009) Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission. J Med Entomol 46(5):1167-1175
  3. Azari-Hamidian S et al (2009) Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 23(2):111-121
  4. Lorosa ES et al (2010) Blood meal identification of selected mosquitoes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26(1):18-23
  5. Gingrich JB & Williams GM (2005) Host-feeding patterns of suspected West Nile virus mosquito vectors in Delaware, 2001-2002. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21(2):194-200
  6. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:7
  7. Azari-Hamidian S et al (2009) Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 23(2):111-121
  8. Bouhsira E et al (2009) Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Vet Rec 165(5):135-137
  9. Machida H et al (2008) The inhibitory effect of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin on blood feeding by mosquitoes in dogs raised under outdoor conditions. Vet Parasitol 154(3-4):318-324