This may result in an abnormal head shape and abnormal facial feature. In dogs, this is rarely associated with cranial disease as it is with humans, where it is an autosomal-recessive condition associated with various cognitive, ocular and auditory defects, but little evidence exists for this condition in dogs.
Affected dogs may present with either dorsal or rostral deviation of the cranium, and affected cats are usually young when first diagnosed.
In severe cases, this may be physically indistinguishable from hydrocephalus.
Definitive diagnosis requires skull imaging with radiography, CT or MRI.
A differential diagnosis would include hydrocephalus, which is usually associated with neurological symptoms.
In the majority of cases, close monitoring for symptoms such as mental developmental disorders or seizures is important.
In deteriorating cases, corrective cranioplasty or euthanasia are only viable options.
- Senarath-Yapa K et al (2012) Craniosynostosis: Molecular pathways and future pharmacologic therapy. Organogenesis Oct 1