Culiseta spp

From Dog
A female unfed Culiseta annulata[1]

Culiseta spp are a genus of mosquitoes which feed habitually on dogs worldwide[2].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Culiseta atra
  • Culiseta longiareolata
  • Culiseta melanura[3]
  • Culiseta incidens[4]
  • Culiseta annulata[5]
  • Culiseta inornata[6]

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on water or in dry places that tend to flood seasonally. The larvae molt four times within the first two weeks of hatching and then pupate. Within 24 hours after emergence from the pupa, female mosquitoes begin seeking blood, feeding every day or every second day on a host until sufficient protein stores allow them to begin laying eggs. It is the repeated feeding which makes them vectors for so many diseases and a cause of blood loss when feeding in swarms[7].

These mosquitoes are responsible for a number of parasitic and viral diseases in dogs including:

Preventative control of mosquito populations is the most effective method of disease control.

Drugs such as fipronil[9] and permethrin[10] are effective in long-term management strategies.

References

  1. Wikimedia commmons
  2. Johansen CA et al (2009) Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission. J Med Entomol 46(5):1167-1175
  3. Ortiz DI et al (2003) Isolation of EEE virus from Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culiseta melanura in coastal South Carolina. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19(1):33-38
  4. Theis JH et al (2000) Vector competence of two species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from southern California for Dirofilaria immitis (Filariidea: Onchocercidae). J Med Entomol 37(2):295-297
  5. Pollono F et al (1998) Research on Culicidae attracted to dog bait in Piedmont. Parassitologia 40(4):439-445
  6. Loftin KM et al (1997) Host preference of mosquitoes in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13(1):71-75
  7. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:7
  8. Azari-Hamidian S et al (2009) Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 23(2):111-121
  9. Bouhsira E et al (2009) Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Vet Rec 165(5):135-137
  10. Machida H et al (2008) The inhibitory effect of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin on blood feeding by mosquitoes in dogs raised under outdoor conditions. Vet Parasitol 154(3-4):318-324