Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia is a chronic inflammatory condition of the canine uterus characterized by endometritis and cystic hyperplasia and a leading cause of infertility in bitches.
This condition is a chronic inflammatory state qhich frequently leads to endometrial degeneration, leading to bacterial overgrowth, usually by Escherichia coli, which migrate from the vagina and proliferate in the uterus at the end of estrus. Secondary pyometra is a common sequela. The disease condition appears to be mediated by progesterone and potentially aggravated by estrogens.
Other cystic lesions of the uterus have been reported in dogs including serosal inclusion cysts, adenomyosis, endometrial polyposis, cystic remnants of mesonephric ducts, and cysts associated with endometrial hyperplasia.
Clinically affected dogs without pyometra sometimes present with persistent bloody vaginal discharge and hemorrhage is quite common within the uterus, with rare fatal outcomes.
Diagnosis is based on presenting clinical signs supported by radiographic or ultrasonogrpahic evidence of uterine wall thickening. Biopsy of uterine endometrium provides a definitive diagnosis.
- Penn Veterinary Medicine
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