Diseases of the pancreas
The canine pancreas is both and exocrine and endocrine gland.
Diseases of the pancreas include:
- - pancreatitis
- - exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
- - exocrine pancreatic carcinoma
- - glucagonoma
- - insulinoma
- - gastrinoma
- - amyloidosis
- - somatostatinoma
- - Fluke infestation - Parametorchis complexus, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis spp, Metagonimus yokogawai, Metorchis spp
The endocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of:
- Alpha cells producing glucagon
- Beta cells producing insulin, glucose transporter 2, glucokinase and amylin
- Delta cells producing somatostatin
- PP cells producing pancreatic polypeptide
- Epsilon cells producing ghrelin
Neuroendocrine disease of the endocrine glands result in dysregulation of the hormones, insulin and glucagon, as is seen in diabetes mellitus. Primary disease of beta-cells includes insulinoma and glucagonoma.
Amyloidosis is another disease which affects the endocrine pancreas of dogs. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAP) are deposited in older dogs and apo-serum amyloid A (AA) in younger dogs.
The exocrine portion of the canine pancreas produces the digestive enzymes trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, and amylase. Control of the exocrine function of the pancreas is via the hormones gastrin, cholecystokinin and secretin, which are hormones secreted by cells in the stomach and duodenum, in response to distension and/or food and which cause secretion of pancreatic juices.