Doxil

From Dog

Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PL-DOX) is a chemotherapy drug as a formulation of doxorubicin in poly(ethylene glycol)-coated (stealth) liposomes with a prolonged circulation time and unique toxicity profile.

The polyethylene glycol coating results in preferential concentration of Doxil in the region of injection, with reduced toxicity and enhanced local antitumor activity. Although the single maximum tolerated dose of Doxil is actually lower than that of conventionally administered doxorubicin, the cumulative dose may be substantially greater than that of free doxorubicin[1].

It is used for hemangiosarcoma and transmissible venereal tumor[2] in dogs.

It has been used as a monotherpay in treatment of hemangiosarcoma in dogs. Variable responses have been reported, when compared with doxorubicin and this drug appears to not prevent intra-abdominal metastases with hemangiosarcoma[3].

Side-effects have been reported, primarily dose-limiting mucocutaneous toxicities, mild myelosuppression, alopecia, anaphylaxis or desquamating dermatitis similar to palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia[4][5]. These effects can be mitigated by use of pyridoxine at 25 - 50 mg given orally every 8 hours.

Recommended dose rate is 10 - 12.5 mg/m2; equating to 0.5 mg/kg every l, 2, or 4 weeks, 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or 1.5 mg/kg every 4 weeks for 12 weeks[6].

References

  1. Gabizon AA (2001) Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: metamorphosis of an old drug into a new form of chemotherapy. Cancer Invest 19(4):424-436
  2. Stettner N et al (2005) Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of canine transmissible venereal tumor in murine models. J Vet Med Sci 67(11):1133-1139
  3. Sorenmo K et al (2007) Clinical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of intracavitary administration of pegylated liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 21(6):1347-1354
  4. Teske E et al (2011) A randomized controlled study into the efficacy and toxicity of pegylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin as an adjuvant therapy in dogs with splenic haemangiosarcoma. Vet Comp Oncol 9(4):283-289
  5. Vail DM et al (1997) Preclinical trial of doxorubicin entrapped in sterically stabilized liposomes in dogs with spontaneously arising malignant tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 39(5):410-416
  6. Amantea M et al (1999) Relationship of dose intensity to the induction of palmar-plantar erythrodysesthia by pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in dogs. Hum Exp Toxicol 18(1):17-26