The gas is thought to be produced by gas-producing bacteria as a result of fermentation of either glucose or albumin.
In dogs, gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, but also Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp are known to be causal gas-forming bacteria produced by fermentation of glucose.
In diabetic dogs, the glucosuria, lowered resistance to infection and dysuria are thought to contribute to bacterial infection in the urinary bladder.
Symptoms associated with this disease are usually none specific, including stranguria, pollakiuria, and hematuria.
Clinical diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis is usually based on evidence of gas accumulation within the bladder lumen and wall found with radiography and ultrasonography.
Histologically, multiple cyst-like structures varying in size are observed in the area from the lamina propria to the muscle layer. Diffuse polypoid cystitis is usually observed in more chronic cases.
Dogs usually recover well following administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Severe cases may require intravesical instillation of dilute formalin.
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