Epididymitis

From Dog
Epididymitis due to Brucella canis. Affected testis is smaller with swelling of the epididymus[1]

Epididymitis is an inflammatory disease of the canine epididymus.

Epididymitis may occur unilaterally or bilaterally, and concurrently involve the testis, vas deferens, prostate and bladder.

This disease is a rare condition in male dogs and is usually associated with:

In dogs with epididymitis due to brucellosis, concurrent disease is common, including discospondylitis, cystitis, prostatitis, anterior uveitis and lymphadenopathy[9].

Affected dogs usually present with vague symptoms of anorexia, dysuria, fever, tenderness in the groin region and testes. In purulent epididymits, hematuria and pyuria may be noted on urinalysis.

In chronic cases, tsticular atrophy and azoospermia is common[10].

Comparison of testes may reveal tenderness in one or both, or there may be marked size differences palpable.

Diagnosis usually requires ultrasonographic imaging, fine-needle biopsy for bacterial culture and histopathological examination. Samples of seminal fluid, blood and urine can also be used for culture of bacterial agents[11].

PCR testing of blood for Brucella antigens is necessary to exclude this as a possible underlying etiology.

Secondary immune-mediated orchitis may ensue in some cases.

Treatment involves broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and possibly hemicastration if only one testicle is affected.

The use of prednisolone is debatable due to a possible recrudescence of infection, but should be considered in cases of testicular torsion or possible underlying immune-mediated disease.

Sterility is a common sequela and owners must be warned against this possible eventuality.


References

  1. Kosvi
  2. Bird K et al (1983) Ultrasonography in testicular torsion. Radiology 147(2):527-534
  3. Foley GL et al (1995) Intratubular spermatic granulomas of the canine efferent ductules. Toxicol Pathol 23(6):731-734
  4. Hayes HM et al (1995) A cohort study of the effects of Vietnam service on testicular pathology of U.S. military working dogs. Mil Med 160(5):248-255
  5. Fries CL et al (1991) Enterocystoplasty with cystectomy and subtotal intracapsular prostatectomy in the male dog. Vet Surg 20(2):104-112
  6. Ladds PW (1985) The male genital system. In: Pathology of Domestic Animals, ed., Jubb KVF and Kennedy PC, 3rd ed., pp. 409-459. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
  7. L'Abee-Lund TM et al (2003) Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway. Vet Rec 153(8):231-235
  8. Kadota K et al (1995) Granulomatous epididymitis related to Rhodotorula glutinis infection in a dog. Vet Pathol 32(6):716-718
  9. Wanke MM (2004) Canine brucellosis. Anim Reprod Sci 82-83:195-207
  10. Dahlbom M et al (1997) Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic tool in dog infertility. J Small Anim Pract 38(11):506-512
  11. Nöckler K et al (2003) Canine brucellosis - a case report. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 116(9-10):368-372