Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:
- Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) (pulmonary capillariasis)
- Eucoleus boehmi (nasal capillariasis)
The life cycle of these parasites is not completely understood, and may develop to infective L3 larvae in the soil or involve a facultative intermediate host, presumably earthworms. Adult E. aerophilus rside within the tracheopulmonary tree whereas E. boehmi reside within the epithelial lining of the nasal mucosa, turbinates, and sinuses.
Infections in dogs with E. aerophilia rarely cause more than a mildly pathological cough that can easily be dismissed as an allergic respiratory disease, similar to what is seen with Crenosoma vulpis. General respiratory distress, wheezing and sometimes sneezing is observed.
Adult E. aerophilus are rarely seen in clinical practice except accidentally under histopathological examination.
Adult E. boehmi can be isolated from the nasal passages using rhinoscopic nasal biopsy.
Diagnosis is based on coprological examination for eggs or larvae using the Baermann fecal flotation device.
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