Factor X deficiency

From Dog

Factor X deficiency is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic form of canine hemophilia[1].

This condition differs from human factor X deficiency which may be acquired in association with autoimmune disease[2].

This disease has been reported in the American Cocker Spaniel, English Springer Spaniel and Jack Russell Terrier.

Unlike factor VIII deficiency, the severity of factor X deficiency is highest in newborn puppies, often proving to be lethal.

In some pups, bruising may be obvious on the skin, indicating severe internal bleeding. Bleeding from the umbilical cord in pups has also been reported. Young adult dogs are also at high risk and may show signs of serious bleeding.

Mature adult dogs affected by the disorder rarely bleed, except after surgery, when they have mild to moderate bleeding.

Homozygous pups usually die, but heterozygous dogs unaffected[3].

Diagnosis is based on coagulation screening tests and detection of delayed partial thromboplastin times (usually > 60 seconds)[4].

treatment involves use of whole blood transfusions or recombinant factor VIII substitutes given at regular intervals or during bleeding crises.


  1. Fogh JM & Fogh IT (1988) Inherited coagulation disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 18(1):231-243
  2. Manikkan AT (2012) Factor X deficiency: an uncommon presentation of AL amyloidosis. Ups J Med Sci 117(4):457-459
  3. LIDA
  4. Mischke R & Nolte I (1997) Optimization of prothrombin time measurements in canine plasma. Am J Vet Res 58(3):236-241