Designated CPV1 through to CPV8, papillomaviruses are characterized by distinct pathologies including exophytic warts (papillomas), endophytic warts, and pigmented plaques. In some cases, squamous cell carcinomas have been associated with this virus.
Variants of canine papilloma clades include:
- CPV1 - focal papillomas
- CPV2 - inverted dermal papillomatosis
- CPV3 - choroid plexus pappiloma?
- CPV4 (Chi) - benign pigmented plaques in pugs
- CPV5 - focal papillomas
- CPV6 - focal papillomas
- CPPV7 - focal papillomas
- CPV8 (closely related to CPV4) - oral papillomatosis
Canine oral papilloma mainly affects young dogs, approximately 1 year old in age, and there is no difference in prevalence between sex and breed.
Tumors can grow in any part of the body, including the face, tongue, mammary glands, vagina (resulting in vaginal prolapse), cornea, interdigital pads, rectum and in post-operative skin.
Oral papillomaviral tumors are readily diagnosed by gross morphological and pathological appearance. Tumors grow exophilic and have a 'cauliflower-like' surface. PCR assays can readily be used to definitive determine the clade involved.
Outbreaks have been reported in kenneled situations, but most papillomas regress spontaneously within a few months, primarily due to infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes.
Choroid plexus papilloma have been associated with meningioma in the dog and thirty percent of choroid plexus tumors (especially Golden Retrievers) are papilloma-derived. The role of immunosuppression appears important, as papillomas are also observed in dogs having chemotherapy.
Experimental vaccines have shown to be effective, but commercially-available vaccines are not currently available.
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