Ganglioradiculitis is an idiopathic progressive, acute-onset neurological disease of dogs.
This condition is similar to acral mutilation syndrome in that peripheral sensory (afferent) loss occurs in the distal extremities (stocking-glove sensory loss) but is more global in sensory loss, involving widespread sensorial deficits including dysphagia, ataxia, hearing loss and visual deficits. Self-trauma may also occur and secondary bacterial infections may lead to skin disease.
Clinical symptoms are usually progressive over several months or years and include facial hypalgesia, dysphagia, ataxia, depression of tendon reflexes, masticatory muscle wasting, megaesophagus, aphonia, deafness, visual deficits and occasionally self-mutilation.
Blood tests, CSF analysis and radiographic studies are usually unrewarding, although a mild increase in CSF cellularity and total protein may be observed. Sensory nerve conduction velocites (NCVs) are slowed or absent, while motor NCVs are normal.
Pathology is primarily confined to the spinal dorsal roots, ganglions, and dorsal columns and a definitive diagnosis requires nerve and spinal biopsies, where characteristic histopathology is observed; myelin loss, axonal degeneration, infiltration of mononuclear cells and proliferation of small supportive spindle cells (Wallerian degeneration).
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