Gastritis

From Dog
A 7-month-old female Beagle with chronic gastritis due to Helicobacter spp. The pyloric mucosa is markedly thickened by enlarged rugae[1]

Gastritis, defined as any inflammatory or infectious disease of the stomach, is an umbrella term for a large number of underlying conditions.

Acute gastritis is often attributed to 'garbage eating', which is relatively common with dogs, often resolves with symptomatic therapy.

Chronic hypertrophic gastritis, proliferative gastritis, or hyperplastic gastritis are generic terms in dogs for more rare disease characterized by a marked thickening of gastric rugae due to mucosal hyperplasia. The lesions may predominantly involve the mucosa of the body of the stomach or as part of a generalized gastrointestinal disease[1].

Causes include:

- Gastric lymphoma
- Gastric carcinoma
- Gastrinoma
- Mast cell tumor
- Helicobacter spp infection
- Botulism
- Pythium spp
- Canine parvovirus
- Infectious canine hepatitis

Chronic gastritis is considered a prevalent disease in dogs[2].

Affected dogs usually present with chronic regurgitation or vomiting, with stomach contents often containing blood.

Diagnosis is based on clinical history, responses to conservative therapy, endoscopic visualization and gastric biopsy, as well as histological examination of tissue samples.

Gastric culture is recommended to exclude gut parasites (Physaloptera spp, Spirocerca lupi, Gnathostoma spp, Protospirura spp) and bacteria (Helicobacter spp).

Treatment depends on cause, but symptomatic relief of chronic vomiting can be achieved with omeprazole, cimetidine, famotidine or ranitidine.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Leblanc B et al (1993) Hyperplastic gastritis with intraepithelial Campylobacter-like organisms in a Beagle dog. Vet Pathol 30(4):391-394
  2. Shabestari AS et al (2008) Assessment of chronic gastritis in pet dogs and its relation with helicobacter-like organisms. Pak J Biol Sci 11(11):1443-1448