General anesthesia

From Dog

General anesthesia is a process of inducing a non-responsive unconscious state in dogs.

This non-conscious state can be induced with injectable and volatile inhalation agents, but none are without risk, especially in hemodynamically compromised canine patients.

  • Sedatives
- Buprenorphine, acepromazine, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, medetomidine[1], hydromorphone
  • Induction agents
- Propofol, thiopentone, pentobarbitone
  • Maintenance agents
- Halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane
  • Respiratory stimulant
- Doxapram, yohimbine


  1. Hunt JR et al (2012) Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg Dec 24