Glomerulonephritis

From Dog
Early glomerular lesions including minimal increase of mesangial matrix. Periodic acid-Schiff staining [1]

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney and a common cause of chronic renal disease in the dog.

Familial glomerulopathies occur in many breeds of dogs. However, most dogs with glomerular disease have acquired glomerular injury that is either immune-complex mediated or due to systemic factors, both of which are believed to be the result of a disease process elsewhere in the body (i.e., neoplastic, infectious, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders)[2].

Causes include:

- Familial juvenile glomerulonephropathy
- acetaminophen, ethylene glycol
- Leptospira spp
- Babesia spp[3]
- Systemic lupus erythematosus

Hematology characteristically shows elevated creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and electrolyte disorders, particularly hyperkalemia.

Urinalysis usually reveals proteinuria, hematuria and reduced GFR.

Although definitive diagnosis requires renal biopsy[4], ultrasonography usually shows abnormal shape of the kidney.

Treatment is usually supportive and therapy is aimed at the inciting cause.

References

  1. Smets PM et al (2012) Renal function and morphology in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration. PLoS One 7(2):e31702
  2. Vaden SL (2011) Glomerular disease. Top Companion Anim Med 26(3):128-134
  3. Slade DJ et al (2011) Resolution of a proteinuric nephropathy associated with Babesia gibsoni infection in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47(6):e138-144
  4. Lees GE et al (2011) Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease. Top Companion Anim Med 26(3):143-153