Glossitis refers to inflammation of the tongue.
- Foreign body penetration of the tongue - common in long-haired dogs that attempt to remove plant burrs from their coat
- Metabolic diseases - uremia, hypoparathyroidism, protein-losing enteropathy
- - Lymphoma
- - Squamous cell carcinoma - predisposition in the Poodle, Labrador Retriever, Samoyed
- - Melanoma - Chow Chow, Shar Pei
- - Hemangiosarcoma - Border Collie, Golden Retriever
- - Fibrosarcoma - Border Collie, Golden Retriever
- - Malignant histiocytosis
- - Benign tumors - squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, granular cell tumor - Cocker Spaniel
- Leishmania spp - usually papular or ulcerative glossitis
- Calcinosis circumscripta - young large-breed dogs
- Solar glossitis - usually in sled dogs at high altitudes or on glaciers
- Eosinophilic stomatitis, glossitis and bronchopneumopathy in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels
- Chemical and electrical burns, ingestion of Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane)
- Uremic glossitis due to chronic renal disease
- Immune-mediated diseases - systemic lupus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris
Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms with supportive evidence of inflammatory changes on histopathological examination of biopsy samples taken under general anesthesia.
Treatment is usually symptomatic and supportive. With foreign body penetrations, these are readily rectified with removal of offending object and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. With periodontitis, dental descale, teeth extractions and broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as clindamycin and metronidazole are usually required. In cases of eosinophilic glossitis, use of immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone, azathioprine or cyclosporin are usually required.
With systemic diseases and neoplasms, treatment is directed at the primary disease.
- Veterinary Dentistry
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