Glucagon levels are normally regulated by secretin, produced by the canine stomach in response to gastric filling. The glycogenolytic and gluconeogenic actions of glucagon result in mild hyperglycemia.
Extrapancreatic glucagonomas have also been reported, primarily associated with the duodenum and metastases to the liver are common.
Diagnosis is usually by pancreatic biopsy and immunohistochemical staining.
Treatment usually requires excisional resection.
The prognosis is guarded due to the likelihood of metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
- Mizuno T et al (2009) Superficial necrolytic dermatitis associated with extrapancreatic glucagonoma in a dog. Vet Dermatol 20(1):72-79
- Allenspach K et al (2000) Glucagon-producing neuroendocrine tumour associated with hypoaminoacidaemia and skin lesions. J Small Anim Pract 41(9):402-406
- Lurye JC & Behrend EN (2001) Endocrine tumors. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 31(5):1083-1110
- Byrne KP (1999) Metabolic epidermal necrosis-hepatocutaneous syndrome. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 29(6):1337-1355
- Gross TL et al (1990) Glucagon-producing pancreatic endocrine tumors in two dogs with superficial necrolytic dermatitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 197(12):1619-1622
- Oberkirchner U et al (2010) Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide. Vet Dermatol 21(5):510-516