Hyalomma spp

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Three adult and 1 nymph females (A) and 4 adult male (B) ticks, Hyalomma aegyptium[1]

Hyalomma spp are a parasitic ticks of dogs and most other mammals.

These ticks are commonly found on the legs, tail or perianal region of dogs.

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ((Bontpoot tick; Bont-legged tick) )[2]
  • Hyalomma glabrum[3]
  • Hyalomma truncatum[4]
  • Hyalomma aegyptium (Tortoise tick)
  • Hyalomma marginatum[5]

These ticks are normally found on cattle as well as numerous other ungulates in Asia, India, southern Europe and southern Africa.

Hyalomma spp usually have a 3-host life cycle. Hyalomma spp are mostly moderately large to large ticks with long mouthparts, and resemble Ambylomma spp but differ in that the second and third palpal segments are roughly the same length. Eyes are present, festoons are irregularly coalesced and the male has adanal and accessory shields[6].

H. anatolicum anatolicum transmits Theileria annulata, Babesia equi, B. caballi, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma theileri. Various arboviruses are also transmitted by this tick, including Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever[7], which has a seroprevalence rate in South African of 0.05% in asymptomatic domestic dogs[8].

Most dogs are asymptomatically infected, but bite can often cause local pruritus. Additionally, reports of piroplasm infections are relatively common, especially Babesia canis and Theileria annulata.

Diagnosis is based on visual or microscopic identification of tick species.

Eradication is usually effective with topical acaricides or parenteral ivermectin.

References

  1. Gazyagci, S et al (2010) A common tortoise tick, Hyalomma aegyptium Linne 1758 (Acari: Ixodidae), identified on eastern hedgehog (Erinaceus concolorMartin 1838) in Central Anatolia. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 34(2):211-213
  2. Ul-Hasan M et al (2012) Prevalence of tick infestation (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum) in dogs in Punjab, Pakistan. Vet Ital 48(1):95-98
  3. Matthee S et al (2010) Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. J S Afr Vet Assoc 81(2):126-128
  4. Burr EW et al (1983) Tick toxicosis in a crossbred terrier caused by Hyalomma truncatum. Vet Rec 113(12):260-261
  5. Kotti BK et al (2001) Hyalomma marginatum Koch in Stavropol' region. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 6:105-108
  6. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:58-59
  7. Merck Vet Manual
  8. Shepherd AJ et al (1987) Antibody to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36(1):133-142