Hyperchloremia

From Dog

Hyperchloremia in dogs is defined as a serum level of chloride >117 mmol/L.

The opposite condition is hypochloremia.

In dogs, this condition is usually associated with hypernatremia due to excess salt intake[1], dehydration states, metabolic acidosis states[2], diabetes insipidus, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperaldosteronism, hypothyroidism[3], Fanconi syndrome[4] and Babesia spp infections[5].

In rare cases, it can be due to adipsia (failure to consume water) due to congenital brain malformation (lobar holoprosencephaly) associated with failure of the osmoreceptor system[6], with a predisposition noted in the Miniature Schnauzer[7].

Other more rare causes include central lymphomas[8] and bromide toxicity[9].

Treatment usually requires intravenous fluid therapy, but caution should be exercised to avoid sudden cerebral edema[10].

References

  1. Kasai CM & King R (2009) Hypernatremia. Compend Contin Educ Vet 31(4):E1-E7
  2. Hopper K & Epstein SE (2012) Incidence, nature, and etiology of metabolic acidosis in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 26(5):1107-1114
  3. Kang JH et al (2007) Adipsic hypernatremia in a dog with antithyroid antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. J Vet Med Sci 69(7):751-754
  4. Settles EL & Schmidt D (1994) Fanconi syndrome in a Labrador retriever. J Vet Intern Med 8(6):390-393
  5. Leisewitz AL et al (2001) The mixed acid-base disturbances of severe canine babesiosis. J Vet Intern Med 15(5):445-452
  6. Shimokawa Miyama T et al (2009) Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings in a miniature Schnauzer with hypodipsic hypernatremia. J Vet Med Sci 71(10):1387-1391
  7. Sullivan SA et al (2003) Lobar holoprosencephaly in a Miniature Schnauzer with hypodipsic hypernatremia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 223(12):1783-1787
  8. Hanselman B et al (2006) Hypernatremia and hyperlipidemia in a dog with central nervous system lymphosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 20(4):1029-1032
  9. Piperisova I et al (2009) What is your diagnosis? Marked hyperchloremia in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol 38(3):411-414
  10. Goldkamp C & Schaer M (2007) Hypernatremia in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Vet 29(3):148