Hypoalbuminemia

From Dog

Hypoalbuminemia is defined as reduced serum levels of albumin below the normal range of 5.5 - 7.5 g/dL.

Albumin is synthesized by the liver and provides 75 - 80% of plasma colloid oncotic pressure, which maintains vasxular volume by preventing movement of fluid from intravascular to extravascular spaces.

The opposite condition is hyperalbuminemia.

Low serum albumin is often associated with chronic protein loss due to underlying diseases which result in protein loss from the intestine, urine or bleeding.

Causes include:

- Leishmania infantum[5]

Clinical hypoalbumineia may be non-specific, but in severe cases, peripheral ventral abdominal and limb edema, ascites and dyspnea due to pleural effusion may be evident.

Specific treatment depends on underlying disease condition, but plasma can be used to replace albumin and raise osmotic pressure.

Furosemide may be indicated in cases with pulmonary edema.

References

  1. Segev G et al (2012) Renal amyloidosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 91 cases with comparison of the disease between Shar-Pei and non-Shar-Pei dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26(2):259-268
  2. Pointer E et al (2013) Starvation and the clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with starved dogs: a review of 152 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 49(2):101-107
  3. Procoli F et al (2013) Comparison of Histopathologic Findings in Duodenal and Ileal Endoscopic Biopsies in Dogs with Chronic Small Intestinal Enteropathies. J Vet Intern Med Feb 9
  4. Lecoindre P et al (2012) Gastric carcinoma associated with Menetrier's-like disease in a West Highland white terrier. J Small Anim Pract 53(12):714-718
  5. Geisweid K et al (2012) Prognostic analytes in dogs with Leishmania infantum infection living in a non-endemic area. Vet Rec 171(16):399
  6. Schoeman JP et al (2013) Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis. N Z Vet J Feb 15
  7. Craft EM & Powell LL (2012) The use of canine-specific albumin in dogs with septic peritonitis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 22(6):631-639
  8. Zimmerman KL et al (2013) Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I in a mixed-breed dog. J Vet Diagn Invest Feb 15