Inguinal hernia are a relatively common congenital or acquired disease of dogs characterized by an opening of the inguinal ring and herniation of abdominal contents into the resultant sac.
Fat and omentum were the most common hernial contents but intestinal and reproductive contents can also evaginate into the hernia.
Anatomically, the inguinal canal is both shorter and larger in diameter in females than in males. Hernias of the inguinal region may be unilateral or bilateral and have been divided into two categories, indirect and direct. In an indirect hernia, the abdominal viscera enter the cavity of the vaginal process and, in males, can proceed into the scrotum. In a direct hernia, the abdominal organs pass through the inguinal ring adjacent to the normal evagination of the vaginal process, sometimes resulting in strangulation of intestinal loops. In males, indirect inguinal hernias commonly become scrotal hernias and are usually designated as such.
Acquired hernias occur in obese animals (in which the canal is held open by the local accumulation of fat), in older entire bitches (in which the gravid uterus may be herniated), resulting pyometra and following trauma which result in pressure-induced rupture of the inguinal ring. Sex hormones, in particular estrogen, could also be involved in the pathogenesis of inguinal hernia, because the majority of inguinal hernias appear during estrus or pregnancy and have not been reported in neutered females.
Prepubic hernia is a traumatic hernia in small animals, most often associated with severe trauma to the caudal abdomen.
Clinical signs of herniation are often nonspecific, and the resultant hernia may not be readily apparent during routine physical examination. Inguinal hernias may also be accompanied by traumatic diaphragmatic hernia.
Diagnosis is often based on a thorough physical examination in conjunction with abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography.
Multiple methods of repair of prepubic hernia (herniorrhaphy) have been reported, and survival rates are quite good if concurrent injuries are not severe.
- Firehouse Chihuahuas
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