Ketoprofen

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Ketoprofen is a NSAID drug with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, similar in clinical effectiveness as carprofen.

Because it is a non-specific cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor, it has gastrointestinal, hepatic, coagulation[1] and renal side-effects which limits its long-term use[2] whereas other NSAIDs such as robenacoxib have specific COX-2 selectivity and can be used for long-term manangement of osteoarthritis[3].

Ketoprofen is mainly cleared by hepatic glucuronidation[4], has relatively poor oral bioavailability, with greatest anti-inflammatory effects when given parenterally[5].

It is regularly given parenterally for peri-operative pain management such as during ovariohysterectomy[6], used solely or in combination with other analgesics such as tramadol, buprenorphine or codeine[7].

This drug should not be given with corticosteroids such as prednisolone due to the enhanced risk of pyloric antrum lesions due to the increased gastric acid production effects of both classes of drugs[8].

Recommended dose rate in dogs is 0.2 - 1.0 mg/kg, given intramuscularly or subcutaneously once daily for less than 5 days.

Low dose may be used for more long-term management of chronic disease, but regular hematological monitoring is recommended[9][10].

References

  1. Gaál T et al (2007) Evaluation of the effect of ketoprofen and carprofen on platelet function in dogs studied by PFA-100 point-of-care analyser. Acta Vet Hung 55(3):287-294
  2. KuKanich B et al (2012) Clinical pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 39(1):69-90
  3. King JN et al (2010) In vitro and ex vivo inhibition of canine cyclooxygenase isoforms by robenacoxib: a comparative study. Res Vet Sci 88(3):497-506
  4. Granero GE & Amidon GL (2008) Possibility of enterohepatic recycling of ketoprofen in dogs. Int J Pharm 349(1-2):166-171
  5. Neirinckx E et al (2011) Species comparison of enantioselective oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen. Res Vet Sci 91(3):415-421
  6. Wagner AE et al (2008) Multicenter, randomized controlled trial of pain-related behaviors following routine neutering in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233(1):109-115
  7. Martins TL et al (2010) Comparison of the effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen alone or in combination on postoperative pain and on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy. Am J Vet Res 71(9):1019-1026
  8. Narita T et al (2007) The interaction between orally administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prednisolone in healthy dogs. J Vet Med Sci 69(4):353-363
  9. Narita T et al (2006) Safety of reduced-dosage ketoprofen for long-term oral administration in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 67(7):1115-1120
  10. Narita T et al (2005) Effects of long-term oral administration of ketoprofen in clinically healthy beagle dogs. J Vet Med Sci 67(9):847-853