These tumors, classified as a non-neoplastic sex cord stromal tumor, produce testosterone and in humans, is associated with virilization and male secondary sexual characteristics. Chorionic gonadotropin is believed to be the most important hormone contributing to this condition.
They occur more frequently in older, multiparous bitches or in bitches with ovarian remnant syndrome.
Clinically-affected dogs are usually older entire females with symptoms of persistent estrus despite being ovariectomized.
Ultrasonography or other imaging techniques may reveal an abdominal mass.
A tentative diagnosis requires histological examination of biopsied or excised tissue samples, and these tumors characteristically show dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral cells with abundant, finely vesiculated cytoplasm.
Immunohistochemical analysis of samples is usually confirmatory, with positive staining by Calretinin, GATA-4, neuron-specific enolase and vimentin.
Surgical extirpation is usually curative.
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