Lymphocytic-plasmacytic rhinitis

From Dog

Lymphocytic-plasmacytic rhinitis (idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis) is an infrequently reported immune-mediated upper airways disease of dogs characterized by bilateral mucopurulent discharge.

Can result in nasal polyposis[1] - predisposition with brachycephalic syndrome, characterized by reverse sneezing, nasal discharge, epistaxis and stertor when breathing.

A presumptive diagnosis can be based on presenting clinical signs and radiographic evidence of bony lysis within the nasal turbinates and increased soft tissue densities.

A definitive diagnosis is based on histological examination of nasal biopsies, which usually shows infiltration of nasal mucosal and submucosal infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells.

Differential diagnosis include foreign bodies, nasal tumors, mycotic rhinitis [2] (Aspergillus fumigatus[3], Penicillium spp), traumatic rhinitis[4], granulomatous rhinitis (Bartonella berkhoffii)[5], stenotic nares and rhinitis syndrome caused by canine herpesvirus with secondary bacterial infections, which has been reported in the Irish Wolfhound.

Because of the suspected immune-mediated etiology of this disease, treatment usually requires immunosuppression with drugs such as prednisolone or immunomodulation with azathioprine or cyclosporine.

References

  1. Osaki T et al (2012) Temporary regression of locally invasive polypoid rhinosinusitis in a dog after photodynamic therapy. Aust Vet J 90(11):442-447
  2. Mercier E et al (2012) Toll- and NOD-like receptor mRNA expression in canine sino-nasal aspergillosis and idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 145(3-4):618-624
  3. Vanherberghen M et al (2012) Analysis of gene expression in canine sino-nasal aspergillosis and idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis: a transcriptomic analysis. Vet Microbiol 157(1-2):143-151
  4. Lobetti RG et al (2009) A retrospective study of chronic nasal disease in 75 dogs. J S Afr Vet Assoc 80(4):224-228
  5. Billeter SA et al (2012) Invasion of canine erythrocytes by Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Vet Microbiol 156(1-2):213-216