Mediastinitis

From Dog
Radiographic appearance of an esophageal perforation secondary to Spirocerca lupi diverticula formation, with flow of barium into the pleural cavity and secondary mediastinitis[1]

Mediastinitis is an inflammatory condition of the mediastinum, the central chest region containing the heart, central bronchi and lymph nodes.

Causes include:

Complications of mediastinitis include pleuritis, pneumonia, formation of nidal pockets of infection leading to abscess formation.

Clinical signs associated with this condition depend on cause, but is frequently associated with fever, anorexia, regurgitation, dyspnea and weight loss.

Diagnosis is usually based on clinical history and radiographic or CT evidence of a mediastinal mass, pleural nodules or nodular pleural thickening[7].

Treatment usually requires aggressive intravenous fluid therapy and broad-spectrum antimicrobials.

Higher morbidity with this disease is seen with concurrent diabetes mellitus, obesity and chronic renal disease[8].

References

  1. Chavatdaat
  2. Glick PL et al (1990) Iodine toxicity secondary to continuous povidone-iodine mediastinal irrigation in dogs. J Surg Res 49(5):428-434
  3. Shahar R et al (1997) A technique for management of bite wounds of the thoracic wall in small dogs. Vet Surg 26(1):45-50
  4. Frendin J (1997) Pyogranulomatous pleuritis with empyema in hunting dogs. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 44(3):167-178
  5. Peláez MJ & Jolliffe C (2012) Thoracoscopic foreign body removal and right middle lung lobectomy to treat pyothorax in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 53(4):240-244
  6. Dvir E et al (2001) Radiographic and computed tomographic changes and clinical presentation of spirocercosis in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 42(2):119-129
  7. Reetz JA et al (2012) CT features of pleural masses and nodules. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 53(2):121-127
  8. Leung Wai Sang S et al (2013) Preoperative hospital length of stay as a modifiable risk factor for mediastinitis after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Surg 8(1):45