Mediastinitis is an inflammatory condition of the mediastinum, the central chest region containing the heart, central bronchi and lymph nodes.
- Post-operative complication following median sternotomy
- Esophageal diverticula
- Sternal osteomyelitis
- Penetrating chest trauma or bite wounds
- Inhaled small plant parts or migrating foreign body such as grass awn
- Necrotic pulmonary mass due to neoplasia - e.g. pulmonary carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, metastatic thymoma, lymphoma
- Pyothorax - e.g. Nocardia spp and Coccidioides spp
- Spirocerca lupi infection
Diagnosis is usually based on clinical history and radiographic or CT evidence of a mediastinal mass, pleural nodules or nodular pleural thickening.
Treatment usually requires aggressive intravenous fluid therapy and broad-spectrum antimicrobials.
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