Metoclopramide

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Metoclopramide is a prokinetic and central antiemetic drug used for the control of vomiting in dogs. It appears ineffective at reducing colonic transit time and thus not indicated for megacolon[1].

The prokinetic effects observed clinically with this drug is thought to act via the release of acetylcholine in gastric and small intestinal smooth muscle, causing reduced gastric reflux, increased gastric emptying and increased intestinal motility[2].

This drug also exhibits a weak central antiemetic effect via antagonism of dopamine receptors at the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CRTZ)[3].

Metoclopramide may also have beneficial effects in dogs with oesophageal reflux associated with megaoesophagus.

It is unclear whether metoclopramide is effective for use with uraemia, intoxications or pancreatitis, or for those undergoing chemotherapy.

Recommended dosages in dog is 0.2-0.4 mg/kg SQ or PO.

This dosage should be reduced in dogs with acute or chronic renal disease as clearance rates appear to be delayed under these disease states[4].

References

  1. Washabau RJ (2003) Gastrointestinal motility disorders and gastrointestinal prokinetic therapy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 33(5):1007
  2. Johnson, AG (1971) The effect of metoclopramide on gastroduodenal and gallbladder contractions. Gut 12:158-163
  3. Jovanovic-Mici, D et al (1995) The role of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms within the area postrema in dopamine-induced emesis. Eur J Pharmacol 272:21-30
  4. Lehmann, CR et al (1985) Metoclopramide kinetics in patients with impaired renal function and clearance by hemodialysis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 37:284-289