This disease, which has been reported in the Great Pyrenees, Labradoodle, Coton de Tulear, Dogue De Bordeaux, English Mastiff, Cane Corso, Borzoi and Lapponian Herder breeds, is caused by a missense bestrophin-1 gene mutation. This disease is similar to Best macular dystrophy in humans.
A number of variants of this disease have been observed. In the German Spitz, the disease is not caused by bestrophin mutation, and in the Great Pyrenees retinopathy, it manifests primarily as retinal pigment epithelium detachments.
Clinically affected dogs are often young (under 1 year of age) and have varying but progressive degrees of visual deficits, from asymptomatic to blindness (rare).
Testing can be done from 7 weeks of age in breeding animals.
Diagnosis usually requires fundoscopic examination, with characteristic subretinal accumulation of multiple gray-tan-pink subretinal patches, and discrete areas of tapetal hyper-reflectivity.
These lesions, looking somewhat like blisters, vary in location and size, although typically they are present in both eyes of the affected dog.
Fluorescein angiography is required for a definitive diagnosis.
A differential diagnosis would include Collie eye anomaly, progressive retinal atrophy, ivermectin sensitivity retinopathy, infectious anterior uveitis due to Blastomyces spp, Cryptococcus spp, metastatic lymphoma and serous detachments due to systemic hypertension or drug toxicities.
In most cases, multifocal retinopathy is a static disease with no or slow clinical progression over time. Systemic abnormalities have not been detected in affected dogs.
In most cases, treatment is not required.
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