Causative agents include:
- Aspergillus fumigatus - predisposition in the Doberman and Great Dane
- Penicillium spp
- Cryptococcus neoformans
- Cryptococcus gattii
- Pseudallescheria boydii
- Rhinosporidium seeberi
- Nonpathogenic mycotic contaminants - Alternaria spp, Mucorale spp
Diagnosis can be challenging due to the anatomy of the nasal cavity making it difficult to access, requiring use of ancillary diagnostic tests. A presumptive diagnosis can based on presenting clinical signs and endoscopic and radiographic imaging studies as well as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and culturing for bacteria and fungi and PCR assays for viruses.
Dogs with cryptococcal rhinitis often have regional lymphadenopathy and skin lesions.
Marked radiographic lesions in dogs with rhinitis are more commonly associated with neoplastic or fungal diseases.
A definitive diagnosis requires histological examination of tissue biopsies.
A differential diagnosis would include other causes of rhinitis such as traumatic rhinitis, nasal tumors and lymphocytic-plasmacytic rhinitis
In nonresponsive cases, a rhinotomy is usually performed and a topical clotrimazole or povidone-iodine dressings placed as a 'tie-over' dressing, replaced every 2 - 3 days until all exposed tissue is covered by healthy granulation tissue.
Responses are reportedly more successful in young dogs with unilateral infections.
- Vet Specialists
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