Mycotoxicosis

From Dog
Amanita muscaria mushroom, usually found near conifer trees and hardwood trees (especially oak trees); lives in soil[1]

Mycotoxicosis in dogs is a relatively uncommon disease characterized by ingestion of fungal toxins.

Mycotoxicosis is commonly a food-spoilage disease, but can occur from indiscriminate ingestion of mushrooms[2].

Causes include:

Clinical signs vary depending on the mycotoxin, but signs are often neurological and gastrointestinal in effect. Some toxins such as aflatoxin result in sudden death due to internal hemmorhage and DIC]], whereas other may elicit only mild gastrointestinal effects when consumed in lower doses such as Fusarium and infertility effects.

Although they constitute a small portion of the clinical cases, mycotoxicoses often require special effort at both diagnosis and treatment, which can be challenging.

Establishing an accurate diagnosis is crucial to minimize exposure and provide adequate treatment.

In most cases, pathologic testing, and analytical chemistry analysis of suspect feed are necessary to reach a diagnosis.

Treatment usually requires aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, N-acetylcysteine and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid.

Dramatic improvements have been reported with use of silibinin when administered at 50 mg/kg in two doses 24 hours apart[7].

References

  1. Gentle Dr Animal Hospital
  2. Puschner B (2002) Mycotoxins. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 32(2):409-419
  3. Gajecka M et al (2008) Histopathological examination of ovaries in bitches after experimental zearalenone mycotoxicosis. Pol J Vet Sci 11(4):363-366
  4. Walter SL (2002) Acute penitrem A and roquefortine poisoning in a dog. Can Vet J 43(5):372-374
  5. Puschner B & Wegenast C (2012) Mushroom poisoning cases in dogs and cats: diagnosis and treatment of hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, gastroenterotoxic, nephrotoxic, and muscarinic mushrooms. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 42(2):375-387
  6. Bernard MA (1979) Mushroom poisoning in a dog. Can Vet J 20(3):82-83
  7. Vogel G et al (1984) Protection by silibinin against Amanita phalloides intoxication in beagles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 73(3):355-362