Nephrotic syndrome is a relatively common urological disease of dogs.
This syndrome has a number of defining clinical features - hypoalbuminemia, proteinuria, hyperlipidemia and interstitial edema.
Nephrotic syndrome has been associated with, in order of importance:
- Acute mebranous glomerulonephritis
- Chronic pyelonephritis
- Renal amyloidosis
- Sulphonamide toxicity
- Leishmania spp
It is thought that aberrant renal tubule retention of sodium with resultant increase in hydrostatic pressure or a systemic increase in vascular permeability may be the primary defects responsible for development of interstitial fluid accumulation.
Laboratory analysis of urine usually reveals underlying hypoalbuminemia, high urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC), proteinuria and increased concentrations of fibrinogen, factors V and VIII, and platelet hyperaggregability associated with hypercoagulable thrombotic complications.
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