Neutropenia

From Dog

Neutropenia is an uncommon hematological disease of dogs characterized by low circulating neutrophils < 3 x 109/L[1].

Neutropenia is uncommon in dogs[2] and in almost all patients, it is an important primary or secondary indicator of significant underlying disease[3].

Neutropenia usually occurs as a result of increased demand due to acute severe inflammation (infectious or non-infectious) with a shift of neutrophils from the circulating to the marginal and or tissue pools, immune-mediated destruction of circulating neutrophils or decreased bone marrow production[4].

Although most cases of canine neutropenia are the result of acute bacterial infections, other causes include:

- Ehrlichia canis[15], Hepatozoon canis[16], Anaplasma spp[17], Babesia canis[18], Leishmania chagasi[19], Acanthamoeba spp[20]

Depending on the cause of the neutropenia, affected dogs present clinically with recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal disorders and sepsis.

The value of examining a blood smear for toxic changes in neutrophils cannot be overemphasized. Hematology examinations should also evaluate the presence of concurrent lymphopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia.

Treatment usually requires long-term therapy with broad-spectrum antimicrobials and addressing the underlying cause of the condition.

References

  1. McManus PM et al (1999) Immune-mediated neutropenia in 2 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 13:372–374
  2. Peterson ME et al (1996) Pretreatment clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with hypoadrenocorticism: 225 cases (1979–1993). J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:85–91
  3. Schnelle AN & Barger AM (2012) Neutropenia in dogs and cats: causes and consequences. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 42(1):111-122
  4. Stockham SL & Scott MA (2002) Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Vol. 121. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Univ Press. pp:474
  5. DeClue AE et al (2008) Effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine on hemodynamic and immunologic variables in dogs with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Am J Vet Res 69(2):228-232
  6. Duffy A et al (2010) Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 33(4):352-356
  7. Jacobs G et al (1998) Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in three dogs treated with anticonvulsants. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212(5):681-684
  8. Bloom JC, Thiem PA, Selers TS, Deldar A, Lewis HB. Cephalosporin-induced immune cytopenia in the dog: Demonstration of erythrocyte, neutrophil and platelet associated IgG following treatment with cefazedone. Am J Hematol. 1988;28:71–78
  9. Fyfe JC et al (1989) Inherited selective malabsorption of vitamin B12 in giant schnauzers. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 25:533–539
  10. Starkebaum G et al (1978) Autoimmune neutropenia in systemic Lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 21:504–512
  11. Adam F et al (2009) Clinical pathological and epidemiological assessment of morphologically and immunologically confirmed canine leukaemia. Vet Comp Oncol 7(3):181-195
  12. Williams MJ et al (2008) What is your diagnosis? Pancytopenia in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol 37(4):429-433
  13. Lifton SJ et al (1996) Glucocorticoid deficient hypoadrenocorticism in dogs: 18 cases (1986–1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc 209:2076–2081
  14. Britton BM et al (2012) Evaluation of factors associated with prolonged hospital stay and outcome of febrile neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy: 70 cases (1997-2010). Vet Comp Oncol Sep 21
  15. Mylonakis ME et al (2011) Serum acute phase proteins as clinical phase indicators and outcome predictors in naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. J Vet Intern Med 25(4):811-817
  16. Shimokawa Miyama T et al (2011) Neutropenia associated with osteomyelitis due to Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 73(10):1389-1393
  17. Kane A et al (2011) An unusual presentation of granulocytic anaplasmosis in a young dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47(4):276-279
  18. Kirtz G et al (2012) In-clinic laboratory diagnosis of canine babesiosis (Babesia canis canis) for veterinary practitioners in Central Europe. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 40(2):87-94
  19. Freitas JC et al (2012) Clinical and laboratory alterations in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 45(1):24-29
  20. Kent M et al (2011) Multisystemic infection with an Acanthamoeba sp in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 238(11):1476-1481
  21. Donahue RE et al (2011) Leukocyte integrin activation mediates transient neutropenia after G-CSF administration. Blood 118(15):4209-4214
  22. Mizukami K et al (2012) Trapped neutrophil syndrome in a Border Collie dog: clinical, clinico-pathologic, and molecular findings. J Vet Med Sci 74(6):797-800
  23. Jaillardon L & Fournel-Fleury C (2011) Waldenström's macroglobulinemia in a dog with a bleeding diathesis. Vet Clin Pathol 40(3):351-355