Odontoma

From Dog
Compound odontoma and secondary dentigerous cyst in a dog[1]

Odontomas are a hamartoma-like benign neoplasm of the canine alveolar bone[2].

These tumors frequently arise from the gingiva and are frequently associated with unerupted teeth in young dogs[3]. They may arise locally or as compounded tumors[4], and may develop unilaterally or bilaterally in mandibular or maxillary bone[5].

Although the majority are benign, their effect as a space occupying lesion can be dramatic and usually present in young dogs as raised, cyst-like hard masses adjacent to or overlaying a tooth[6].

Malignant variants such as ameloblastic fibro-odontomas have been reported, which metastasize to other organs[7].

Diagnosis usually requires tissue sample biopsy and histological examination, which usually reveals a preponderance of mesenchymal tissue resembling dental pulp, odontoblasts, and areas of dentin[8].

A differential diagnosis would include odontodystrophy, ameloblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, papillomatosis, epulis, bone cysts and melanoma[9].

Surgical extirpation is usually curative, but often required extension surgical curettage. large tumors may require a partial mandibulectomy and surgical reconstruction using bridging plate fixation[10].

References

  1. Veterinary Dentistry
  2. Papadimitriou S et al (2005) Compound maxillary odontoma in a young German shepherd dog. J Small Anim Pract 46(3):146-150
  3. Walker KS et al (2009) Diagnostic imaging in veterinary dental practice. Odontoma and impacted premolar. J Am Vet Med Assoc 235(11):1279-1281
  4. Felizzola CR et al (2003) Compound odontoma in three dogs. J Vet Dent 20(2):79-83
  5. Eickhoff M et al (2002) Erupted bilateral compound odontomas in a dog. J Vet Dent 19(3):137-143
  6. Hale FA & Wilcock BP (1996) Compound odontoma in a dog. J Vet Dent 13(3):93-95
  7. Ueki H et al (2004) Malignant ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a dog. Vet Pathol 41(2):183-185
  8. Poulet FM et al (1992) A survey of epithelial odontogenic tumors and cysts in dogs and cats. Vet Pathol 29(5):369-380
  9. Valentine BA et al (1985) Compound odontoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186(2):177-179
  10. Spector DI et al (2007) Immediate mandibular reconstruction of a 5 cm defect using rhBMP-2 after partial mandibulectomy in a dog. Vet Surg 36(8):752-759