Paclitaxel

From Dog

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapy drug which acts as a mitotic inhibitor and indicated for malignant high-grade solid tumours in dogs such as mast cell tumor[1].

Paclitaxel is highly effective in the treatment of many cancers, but cannot be routinely used in dogs due to the exquisite sensitivity of this species to surfactant-solubilizing agents.

However, reformulation in a water-soluble carrier have recently allowed this formulation to be used in canine oncology[2].

This drug has shown antitumor responses in dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma, mammary adenocarcinoma and malignant histiocytosis.

This drug has superior activity to other chemotherapy drugs such as lomustine[3] but anaphylaxis is commonly reported compared with its sister drug, docetaxel.

Premedication with daily prednisolone 2 - 3 days prior and diphenhydramine 30 - 60 minutes prior to and during docetaxel delivery is mandatory.

Other side-effects such as dose-limiting neutropenia, gastroenteritis and alopeciaare also common, especially in multi-drug sensitivity breeds such as the Collie.

Recommended dose rate in dogs is 165 mg/m2 intravenously over 3 - 6 hours every 3 weeks.

References

  1. von Euler H et al (2012) A dose-finding study with a novel water-soluble formulation of paclitaxel for the treatment of malignant high-grade solid tumours in dogs. Vet Comp Oncol Mar 9
  2. Axiak SM et al (2011) Phase I dose escalation safety study of nanoparticulate paclitaxel (CTI 52010) in normal dogs. Int J Nanomedicine 6:2205-2212
  3. Vail DM et al (2012) A randomized trial investigating the efficacy and safety of water soluble micellar paclitaxel (Paccal Vet) for treatment of nonresectable grade 2 or 3 mast cell tumors in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26(3):598-607