Paecilomyces spp are an opportunistic fungal infection of dogs.
They are normally considered a non-dermatophytic fungi that requires underlying dermatopathy to invade the skin. The incidence of these infections is greater in warm and humid climate. Both dermal and systemic phaeohyphomycosis have been reported.
The fungus is a nematophagous symbiont of most nematodes including Toxocara canis and infections in dogs can occur via gut dissemination or with immunocompromised states such pregnancy, or with dogs receiving cyclosporin.
Species which are pathogenic include:
- Paecilomyces lilacinus
- Paecilomyces variotii
Clinical signs of Paecilomyces spp infections often present as lethargy, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, diarrhea, and vestibulocochlear deficits.
Generalized calcinosis cutis, pneumonia, discospondylitis and systemic phaeohyphomycosis have been reported using radiographic and ultrasonographic studies. In one case focal granulomas were observed in the skin, liver and spleen.
Thick walled fungal hyphae are usually detected in impression smears from skin lesions, kidneys, mitral valve, abdominal aorta and vertebral discs. Staining with periodic acid-Schiff's stain is usually confirmatory.
Treatment with generalized phaeohyphomycosis usually requires parenteral ketoconazole.
The prognosis for paecilomycosis is poor, although some treatment success has been reported.
- Dr Fungus
- Jand SK & Gupta MP (1989) Dermatomycosis in dogs. Mycoses 32(2):104-105
- Philpot CM & Berry AP (1984) The normal fungal flora of dogs. A preliminary report. Mycopathologia 87(3):155-157
- Nakagawa Y et al (1996) A canine case of profound granulomatosis due to Paecillomyces fungus. J Vet Med Sci 58(2):157-159
- Carvalho RO et al (2010) Ovicidal activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs. Vet Parasitol 169(1-2):123-127
- March PA et al (1996) Diagnosis, treatment, and temporary remission of disseminated paecilomycosis in a vizsla. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32(6):509-514
- Quance-Fitch FJ et al (2002) Pleural effusion in a dog with discospondylitis. Vet Clin Pathol 31(2):69-71
- Holahan ML et al (2008) Generalized calcinosis cutis associated with disseminated paecilomycosis in a dog. Vet Dermatol 19(6):368-372
- García ME et al (2000) Disseminated mycoses in a dog by Paecilomyces sp. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 47(4):243-249
- Booth MJ et al (2001) Temporary remission of disseminated paecilomycosis in a German shepherd dog treated with ketoconazole. J S Afr Vet Assoc 72(2):99-104
- Foley JE et al (2002) Paecilomycosis in dogs and horses and a review of the literature. J Vet Intern Med 16(3):238-243