Canine parainfluenza virus

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Bronchiolar epithelium, immunopositive for canine parainfluenza virus (CpiV) antigen[1]

Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV;Influenza A virus subtype H3N8) is a virus commonly associated with kennel cough in dogs.

Co-infections with canine respiratory coronavirus, canine adenovirus[2] and Bordetella bronchiseptica is common[3].

Stressors associated with kenneling often result in immunosuppression, which may trigger colonization of the virus in the respiratory ciliary epithelium. Crowding of dogs is significantly associated with the seroprevalence of CPIV[4] with an accompanying relatively short period of shedding[5]. Concentrations of CPIV-neutralizing antibody usually decline 3 or 4 months post-exposure[6].

Clinical signs usually involve upper respiratory signs such as coughing and rhinitis.

Involvement of bacterial such as Bordetella bronchispetica may lead to pneumonia.

Diagnosis is by ELISA or PCR assays.

There is no specific treatment for parainfluenza viral infections, which are often self-limiting. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials may be indicated with febrile infections.

References

  1. Damián M et al (2005) Immunohistochemical detection of antigens of distemper, adenovirus and parainfluenza viruses in domestic dogs with pneumonia. J Comp Pathol 133(4):289-293
  2. Ditchfield J et al (1962) Association of canine adenovirus (Toronto A 26/61) with an outbreak of laryngotracheitis (“kennel cough”). Can Vet J 3:238–247
  3. Ellis J et al (2011) Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities. Can Vet J 52(8):861-868
  4. Mouzin DEet al (2004) Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:55–60
  5. Englund L et al (2003) Seroepidemiological survey of Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza-2 virus in dogs in Sweden. Vet Rec 152:251–254
  6. Appel M & Percy DH (1970) SV-5-like parainfluenza virus in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 156:1778–1781