Paraneoplastic syndrome

From Dog

Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of noncancerous diseases associated with internal neoplasia[2].

Paraneoplastic syndrome commonly presents as dermatological manifestations but can also be evident as cardiac abnormalities (e.g. ventricular tachycardia[3] due to underlying neuroendocrine disease), neuromuscular changes (e.g. paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis[4]), ocular changes (e.g. uveitis[5]), hematological changes (e.g. leukocytosis, eosinophilia, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, regenerative anemia and hypercalcemia[6]) as well as general clinical signs of weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, diarrhea and anorexia.

A number of diseases can result in paraneoplastic syndrome, including:

Differentiating these paraneoplastic skin changes from other skin diseases can be challenging and often requires skin biopsies and blood tests to elucidate the underlying pathology[17].

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Grillo TP et al (2007) Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma in a dog. Can Vet J 48(7):745-747
  2. Turek MM (2003) Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes in dogs and cats: a review of the literature. Vet Dermatol 14(6):279-296
  3. Tappin S et al (2008) An intestinal neuroendocrine tumour associated with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and melaena in a 10-year-old boxer. J Small Anim Pract 49(1):33-37
  4. Stepaniuk K et al (2011) Acquired myasthenia gravis associated with oral sarcoma in a dog. J Vet Dent 28(4):242-249
  5. Snead EC et al (2005) A case of bilateral renal lymphosarcoma with secondary polycythaemia and paraneoplastic syndromes of hypoglycaemia and uveitis in an English Springer Spaniel. Vet Comp Oncol 3(3):139-144
  6. Bergman PJ (2012) Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Top Companion Anim Med 27(4):156-158
  7. Marchetti V et al (2005) Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a dog with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Vet Clin Pathol 34(3):259-263
  8. Cohen M & Post GS (1999) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with intestinal leiomyosarcoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215(12):1818-1820
  9. Soare T et al (2012) Paraneoplastic syndrome in haemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a dog. J Comp Pathol 146(2-3):168-174
  10. Rossi G et al (2011) Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia in a diabetic dog with an insulin growth factor-2-producing mammary carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol 39(4):480-484
  11. Mariani CL et al (1999) Paraneoplastic polyneuropathy and subsequent recovery following tumor removal in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35(4):302-305
  12. Pressler BM et al (2002) Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221(2):263-265
  13. Nishifuji K et al (2009) Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of circulating IgG autoantibodies against canine desmoglein 3 in dogs with pemphigus. Vet Dermatol 20(5-6):331-337
  14. Petterino C et al (2011) Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol 40(1):89-94
  15. Oberkirchner U et al (2010) Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide. Vet Dermatol 21(5):510-516
  16. Batlivala TP et al (2010) Paraneoplastic T cell lymphocytosis associated with a thymoma in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 51(9):491-494
  17. Outerbridge CA et al' (2013) Cutaneous manifestations of internal diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 43(1):135-152