Pneumonyssoides spp

From Dog
Adult female P. caninum under light microscopy[1]
P. caninum on the external nares of a dog[2]

Pneumonyssoides spp are an hematophagous parasitic mite of dogs, reported in Canada, Australia, South Africa, Japan and Europe[3][4][5].

Adult mites are microscopic, with females no larger than 1.5 mm. The female is ovoviviparous and that there is no nymphal stage in the life cycle of this parasite. Dog-to-dog transmission is by direct transfer of larvae from one infested dog to another[6], although foxes may act as a reservoir host[7].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Pneumonyssoides caninum

These mites are nuisance parasites of the caudal nasal and frontal sinuses[8], and clinically affected dogs present with acute 'reverse sneezing'[9], rhinitis, nasal pruritus and epistaxis.

Older, large breed dogs appear more predisposed, although this may be a demographic related to urban culture of working dogs, which are more likely to become infested with foraging activity[10]. Occasionally, nasal discharge has been reported in dogs.

Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood may be noted[11]. In routine seroepidemiological studies, up to 10% of necropsied dogs in Norway were infected, with sinusitis a consistent postmortem finding[12].

Diagnosis is based on endoscopic visualization, nasal removal of larvae or response to treatment[13]. ELISA assays have also been developed[14].

Treatment is relatively effective with intranasal or parenteral administration of ivermectin, milbemycin oxime[15] or selamectin[16][17].

References

  1. Vetnext
  2. Hund
  3. Movassaghi AR & Mohri M (1998) Nasal mite of dogs Pneumonyssus (Pneumonyssoides) caninum in Iran. Vet Rec 142(20):551-552
  4. Traldi G et al (1989) Pneumonyssoides caninum: a mite from the nasal cavities and frontal sinuses of the dog. A case report. Parassitologia 31(2-3):173-176
  5. Noda R et al (1974) A case of Pneumonyssoides caninum in a dog. So Jap J Sanit Zooll 24:35
  6. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri
  7. Bredal WP et al (1997) Pneumonyssoides caninum, the canine nasal mite, reported for the first time in a fox (Vulpes vulpes). Vet Parasitol 73(3-4):291-297
  8. Bredal W & Vollset I (1998) Use of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of dogs with nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection. J Small Anim Pract 39(3):126-130
  9. Bredal WP (1998) Pneumonyssoides caninum infection - a risk factor for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Vet Res Commun 22(4):225-231
  10. Gunnarsson LK et al (2001) Prevalence of Pneumonyssoides caninum infection in dogs in Sweden. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 37(4):331-337
  11. Gunnarsson L et al (1998) Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum. Vet Parasitol 77(2-3):179-186
  12. Bredal WP (1998) The prevalence of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in Norwegian dogs. Vet Parasitol 76(3):233-237
  13. Bredal WP (1998) An epidemiological survey of therapy and diagnostic procedures used by Norwegian small animal practitioners in cases of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs. Vet Res Commun 22(6):389-399
  14. Gunnarsson L & Zakrisson G (2000) Demonstration of circulating antibodies to Pneumonyssoides caninum in experimentally and naturally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol 94(1-2):107-116
  15. Gunnarsson LK et al (1999) Clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of nasal mite infection in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35(1):81-84
  16. Fisher MA & Shanks DJ (2008) A review of the off-label use of selamectin (Stronghold/Revolution) in dogs and cats. Acta Vet Scand 50:46
  17. Gunnarsson L et al (2004) Efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of nasal mite (Pneumonyssoides caninum) infection in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 40(5):400-404