Prohemistomum are a small trematode measuring 1 mm in length. They differ from Mesostephanus spp in overall length and body shape.
The life cycle involves paratenic snails and an intermediate fish host (commonly brackish and freshwater fish such as Tilapia nilotica and Gambusia affinis). Dogs ingest the infective metacercariae which reside primarily in the small intestine.
The prepatent period is short in carnivores, and eggs can be detected in as short a period as 2 - 3 days.
These flukes are usually nonpathogenic to dogs.
Species which have been reported include:
- Prohemistomum vivax
Diagnosis is usually based on coprological identification of eggs in feces.
Treatment is usually effective with praziquantel at 50 mg/kg monthly.
- Taher, GA (2009) Some studies on metacercarial infection in oreochromis niloticus in Assuit Governorate and their role in transmission of some trematodes of dogs. Ass Univ Bull Environ Res 12(1):March
- Arafa, MI et al (2005) Studies on some clinostomatid metacercariae from Tilapia nilotica in Assiut Governorate. Assiut Vet Med J 51(107):218-227
- Bowman, DD et al (2005) Feline clinical parasitology. Iowa State University Press, Iowa