Prostatic adenocarcinoma

From Dog
Prostatic carcinoma, neutered dog. Prostate is on the left and has a central cavity of necrosis. The bladder is central right.[1]

Prostatic adenocarcinoma is a rare prostate disease of male dogs.

Prostatic adenocarcinoma occur in both entire and desexed male dogs, and invariably involve various degrees of prostatic hyperplasia. Precancerous lesions are thought to be absent, compared with humans, and adenocarcinoma in dogs is usually associated with high grade prostatic intraepithelial ductal cells[2], as opposed to acinar basal cells in prostatic hyperplasia[3].

A slightly increased risk of development is observed in desexed male dogs[4] and breed predisposition studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in the development of canine prostate cancer[5].

The metastatic index of these tumors is relatively high, with the lungs a common secondary metastatic site.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common prostatic neoplasia, although others have been identified, including:

Clinical signs are usually variable but often include hematuria, tenesmus and constipation. In advance prostatic neoplasia, lethargy, fever and prostatic abscessation may result.

Diagnosis is based on laparoscopic or ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate, followed by histological analysis of submitted samples.

A differential diagnosis would include prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis[13].

Treatment often requires surgical curettage, laser ablation or radiation therapy.


  1. University of Guelph
  2. Waters DJ & Bostwick DG (1997) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia occurs spontaneously in the canine prostate. J Urol 157:713-716
  3. Leav I et al (2001) Role of canine basal cells in postnatal prostatic development, induction of hyperplasia, and sex hormone-stimulated growth; and the ductal origin of carcinoma. Prostate 48(3):210-224
  4. Teske E et al (2002) Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Mol Cell Endocrinol 197(1-2):251-255
  5. Bryan JN et al (2007) A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. Prostate 67(11):1174-1181
  6. Gilson SD et al (1992) Unusual prostatic mass in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:702-707
  7. Cornell KK et al (2000) Clinical and pathologic aspects of spontaneous canine prostatic carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 76 cases. The Prostate 45:173-183
  8. Hayden DW et al (1992) Prostatic hemangiosarcoma in a dog: clinical and pathologic findings. J Vet Diagn Invest 4:2009-211
  9. Bacci B et al (2010) Primary Prostatic Leiomyosarcoma With Pulmonary Metastases in a Dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 46:103-106
  10. Weisse C et al (2006) Evaluation of palliative stenting for management of malignant urethral obstructions in dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 229:226-234
  11. Mainwaring CJ (1990) Primary lymphoma of the prostate on a dog. J Small Anim Pract 31:617-619
  12. Anderson CR et al (2002) Late complications of pelvic irradiation in 16 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 43(2):187-192
  13. Rohleder JJ & Jones JC (2002) Emphysematous prostatitis and carcinoma in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 38(5):478-481