Prostatic lymphoma

From Dog

Prostatic lymphoma is a prostatic disease of dogs characterized by aggressive, metastatic neoplasia.

Although primary prostatic lymphoma have been reported in the dog[1][2], secondary metastasis from other organs is more common.

Clinically affected dogs are usually middle aged or older and present with anorexia, intermittent fever, anorexia, urinary obstruction, incontinence, dysuria and hematuria.

Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, evidence of caudal abdominal pain, rectal confirmation of prostatomegaly, organomegaly (especially enlarged liver and spleen) and imaging studies to show a large dyshomogenous prostate and more rare findings such as bilateral hydronephrosis.

A definitive diagnosis requires fine-needle aspiration of prostatic tissue or exploratory laparotomy biopsy of the prostate.

A differential diagnosis would include prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic squamous metaplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostatic cysts, prostatitis and prostatic abscess.

Treatment may be difficult in these cases as most are refractory to surgical intervention via prostatectomy, which is a successful treatment of human patients[3].

Complete remission has been reported with multi-drug chemotherapy[4], and adjunct radiation therapy may assist survival in these cases.

Prognosis is guarded in most cases.


  1. Mainwaring, CJ (2008) Primary lymphoma of the prostate in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 31(12):617–619
  2. Winter MD et al (2006) Imaging diagnosis - urinary obstruction secondary to prostaticlymphoma in a young dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 47(6):597-601
  3. Chen B et al (2012) A new marker, SOX11, aids the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma in the prostate: A case report. Oncol Lett 4(2):265-267
  4. Assin R et al (2008) Prostate as sole unusual recurrence site of lymphoma in a dog. In Vivo 22(6):755-757