Proteinuria

From Dog

Proteinuria is defined as the presence of abnormal quantities of proteins in the urine.

As protein may arise in urine samples from anywhere along the urinary tract, identification of teh source is important to not only diagnose but treat this symptom.

Causes include:

- Amyloidosis
- Ectopic ureter
- Ureteral stenosis[1]
- Fanconi's syndrome
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Renal agenesis
- Renal cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma[2] - associated with dermatofibrosis in German Shepherds
- Renal dysplasia
- Renal hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney)[3]
- X-linked hereditary nephropathy - Cocker Spaniel
- Familial juvenile glomerulonephropathy (autosomal-recessive) - French Mastiff, Bull Terrier
- Chronic prostatitis
- Chronic cystitis
- Leptospira spp
- Pyelonephritis
- Balamuthia mandrillaris
- Dioctophyme renale
- Pearsonema plica
  • Inflammatory
- Glomerulonephritis
- Urolithiasis
- Renal dysplasia
- Acute renal injury
- Adenocarcinoma[4]
- Angiomyxoma
- Lymphoma
- Oncocytoma
  • Secondary renal disease
- Psychogenic polydipsia
- Diabetes insipidus
- Diabetes mellitus
- Hyperadrenocorticism
- Hypoadrenocorticism
- Nephrotic syndrome

References

  1. Lam NK et al (2012) Endoscopic placement of ureteral stents for treatment of congenital bilateral ureteral stenosis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 240(8):983-990
  2. Zanatta M et al (2012) Nodular Dermatofibrosis in a Dog without a Renal Tumour or a Mutation in the Folliculin Gene. J Comp Pathol Aug 4
  3. Kolbjørnsen O et al (2008) End-stage kidney disease probably due to reflux nephropathy with segmental hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney) in young Boxer dogs in Norway. A retrospective study. Vet Pathol 45(4):467-474
  4. Whitehead ML et al (2012) Elevated serum γ-glutamyltransferase associated with canine renal adenocarcinoma. Vet Rec 170(14):362