Psorophora spp

From Dog
A female unfed Psorophora[1]

Psorophora spp are a genus of mosquitoes which feed habitually on dogs worldwide[2].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Psorophora albigenu[3]
  • Psorophora ferox

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on water or in dry places that tend to flood seasonally. The larvae molt four times within the first two weeks of hatching and then pupate. Within 24 hours after emergence from the pupa, female mosquitoes begin seeking blood, feeding every day or every second day on a host until sufficient protein stores allow them to begin laying eggs. It is the repeated feeding which makes them vectors for so many diseases and a cause of blood loss when feeding in swarms[4].

These mosquitoes are a primary vector of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis[5][6], and a potentially important vector of arboviruses (Barmah Forest, Ross River, everglades virus).

Preventative control of mosquito populations is the most effective method of disease control.

Drugs such as fipronil[7] and permethrin[8] are effective in long-term management strategies.

References

  1. Photography on the net
  2. Johansen CA et al (2009) Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission. J Med Entomol 46(5):1167-1175
  3. Jones JW et al (2004) Seasonal distribution, biology, and human attraction patterns of culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a forest near Puerto Almendras, Iquitos, Peru. J Med Entomol 41(3):349-360
  4. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:7
  5. Estran C et al (2007) Human dirofilariasis: 3 cases in the south of France. Presse Med 36(1):799-803
  6. Vezzani D et al (2011) PCR detection of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens from urban temperate Argentina. Parasitol Res 108(4):985-989
  7. Bouhsira E et al (2009) Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Vet Rec 165(5):135-137
  8. Machida H et al (2008) The inhibitory effect of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin on blood feeding by mosquitoes in dogs raised under outdoor conditions. Vet Parasitol 154(3-4):318-324