Sevoflurane

From Dog

Sevoflurane (Sevofluorane) is a popular volatile anesthetic agent used in canine medicine as an induction and maintenance general anesthetic agent[1].

Comparison trials have shown that this agent is comparable to other inhalation agents in terms of changes to renal values and hemodynamic complications[2].

Use of premedications such as buprenorphine, acepromazine or medetomidine can be safely administered prior to using isoflurane[3].

Risks with this agent include:

  • Complications associated with malignant hyperthermia
  • Cumulative fetal and liver toxicity to both canine patients and human operators
  • Intra-operative tachypnea[4]
  • Peri-operative ventricular tachycardia[5]
  • Post-operative hypothermia[6]
  • Poor analgesic effect necessitating perioperative analgesia
  • Complications associated with elevated intracranial hypertension - caution with hypertensive patients

Anesthetic dose for maintenance is usually 1 - 2% end-tidal concentration[7], which can be mitigated with the use of nitrous oxide[8].

This anesthetic agent has superior properties to halothane and equal in performance with isoflurane[9].

References

  1. Pottie RG et al (2008) Speed of induction of anaesthesia in dogs administered halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane or propofol in a clinical setting. Aust Vet J 86(1-2):26-31
  2. Silva AE et al (2009) Does the choice of the halogenated anesthetic influence renal function during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation? Ren Fail 31(1):62-69
  3. Hunt JR et al (2012) Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg Dec 24
  4. Zhang Z et al (2013) Isoflurane depolarizes bronchopulmonary C neurons by inhibiting transient A-type and delayed rectifier potassium channels. Respir Physiol Neurobiol Jan 26
  5. Duerr FM et al (2007) Prevalence of perioperative arrhythmias in 50 young, healthy dogs. Can Vet J 48(2):169-177
  6. Pottie RG et al (2007) Effect of hypothermia on recovery from general anaesthesia in the dog. Aust Vet J 85(4):158-162
  7. Fusellier M et al (2007) Influence of three anesthetic protocols on glomerular filtration rate in dogs. Am J Vet Res 68(8):807-811
  8. Duke T et al (2006) The effect of nitrous oxide on halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane requirements in ventilated dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg 33(6):343-350
  9. Teixeira Neto FJ et al (2007) A study of the effect of hemorrhage on the cardiorespiratory actions of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg 34(2):107-116